The importance of intestinal microbiota in the maintenance of the intestinal immune homeostasis.
The importance of plant fiber in the diet is so in the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases. Among the many molecules of non-digestible carbohydrates we have pectins, the oligofructose, inulin, cellulose, resistant starch and beta-glucans. The term “non-digestible carbohydrates” is given to them because their bonds are not split by amylase and disaccharidases. For that is important in diet the assumption of this food.
From the fermentation implemented through the bacterial enzymes are formed short chain fatty acids: propionic acid (C3), butyric acid (C4), and gases (carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen). Resistant starch and some oligosaccharides meet this fate. Some molecules (eg, pectin and guar gum) are fermented more efficiently compared to cellulose or wheat bran. The short chain fatty acids (SCFA) as iso-butyric acid and iso-valeric, are also formed during the fermentation of certain peptides resistant to the action of peptidases. The intestinal microbiota is essential for the maintenance of the intestinal immune homeostasis. Butyrate, the most abundant bioactive SCFA in the intestines, is a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), a class of drugs that has potent immunomodulatory properties. It was discovered that butyrate may modulate the function of dendritic cells to regulate the homeostasis of the intestinal mucosa and that inhibits IL-12, which significantly induce the expression of IL-23.
It is a important interleukin of the inflammatory response against infection and promotes upregulation of the matrix metalloprotease MMP9, increases angiogenesis and reduces CD8+ T-cell infiltration.
One of the foods with the highest content of butyric acid is Ghee, a clarified butter product of the ordinary unsalted butter, after heating it on low heat to remove the water, protein and lactose. It is rich in saturated fatty acids, especially short chain; it is used in terms of energy and in the formation of phospholipids and omega 3 and 6 metabolism . The use of ghee is millennial and fundamental in Ayurvedic Medicine the therapeutic goal is to modify the main and structuring Ojas, the coherent part of the human body and balancing and pacify Pitta dosha.