Human Microbiome Project

September 1, 2016

Human Microbiome Project

The topic of the microbiome is so important that in the US the NHS is carrying out a project with a total budget of 115 million dollars, which aims to identify and characterize the micro-organisms and their relationship with the state of health and disease of man.

It is therefore necessary to consider the substantial importance of the co-presence of microbiota in our body and evaluate the plastic dynamism of microbiome, that can transform their gene expression in relation to environmental factors such as the type of diet and impact on health status.

It has been observed that individuals from the same family have similarity in intestinal bacterial species and families that may change depending on interactions with the host and the environment. In the normal-weight individual, three main types of bacteria are recognized: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes.

Microbiota can affect the nutritional and metabolic balance of the body by modulating the ability to extract energy from the foods of one’s diet and interact with the glucose and lipid metabolism. The metabolites released by the fermentation of complex dietary polysaccharides can increase the absorption of glucose, stimulate lipogenesis, change the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and the liver, alter the permeability of the intestinal mucosal barrier, altering the immune response, contribute to a state of systemic chronic inflammation and the state of insulin resistance related to obesity.

 

Only through complete typification of bacterial species that colonize the gastrointestinal tract and the knowledge of their pathophysiologic functions will be possible to more accurately define a significant pathogenetic aspect of obesity and metabolic syndrome and prepare targeted therapeutic remedies.