Gut microbiota can influence the cognitive development of the child

Gut microbiota can influence the cognitive development of the child

A new research, developed at the Department of Psychiatry of the University of North Carolina, and published in Biological Psychiatry, shows that the intestinal microbiota can influence the cognitive development of the child, The researchers analyzed faecal samples from children from one year until development to determine the bacterial composition of their intestine. At the age of two, some children scored significantly better on cognitive tests than others. The differences were found in relation to the bacterial clusters that had been identified in their intestinal microbiotes. According to the researchers, if we could better understand what the real beneficial strains are in the complex microbiota community for brain development, the creation of specific therapies for cognitive development would be at the forefront. Actually this is a very promising field of research and the steps that are taking place are very fast. The first year of life is the fundamental period for microbial colonization of the intestine and the most rapid and dynamic phase of postnatal brain development. The possible competition of these processes has not been tested empirically in humans, although studies on rodent models provide convincing evidence that microorganisms inhabiting the gut affect neurodevelopment, in particular both exploratory and communicative behaviors and cognitive performance. . A number of studies replicated in animal research have shown that if you manipulate the microbiota, you can affect the behavior especially in the first two years of life since in this period is presented by both the microbiota and the neuronal component, a growth very fast and dynamic. The researchers hypothesized that samples of the intestinal microbiota can be grouped in groups of “community similarity or cluster” and that children with different groups would differ in cognitive abilities. It has been seen that overall cognitive performance would be higher in clusters with an abundance of specifically beneficial microorganisms (eg Lactobacillus or Bacteroides), while that of low alpha diversity (which indicates a less mature microbiota) would be correlated with a cognitive performance lower. The children were subsequently grouped into three groups: Cluster 1 (C1) was characterized by a relatively high abundance of Faecalibacterium, cluster 2 (C2) by a relatively high abundance of Bacteroides and cluster 3 (C3) by an abundance relatively high of an unnamed genus in the Ruminococcaceae family. Breastfeeding at the time of sample collection (1 year), the method of delivery and the paternal ethnic group were significantly different among the clusters. Children in C2 were more likely to be breastfed at the age of 1 and were less likely to be born by cesarean delivery. The paternal ethnicity in C2 was 90% white; in C3, the paternal ethnic group was 71% white; in C1, the paternal ethnic group was 57%...

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Inflammatory foods and dementia

Inflammatory foods and dementia

American researchers at Columbia University believe they have discovered a key part in understanding the link between diet and dementia. A specific dietary model was attached to the markers of blood inflammation. Moreover, in elderly adults who followed such a dietary pattern, the volume of cerebral gray matter was lower and had worst visuospasic cognitive functions. People who consume less omega 3, less calcium, vitamin E, vitamin D and vitamin B5 and B2 have more inflammatory biomarkers. The study suggests that dietary factors such as fish, nuts, polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3, folate and Mediterranean diets are associated with lower risks for Alzheimer’s (AD) disease and better brain health in older people. Other evidence shows that many foods and nutrients modulate inflammatory processes. This study showed an association between increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL6) and worse brain cognitions and volumes. In the study of 330 elderly adults in the Washington Heights-Inwood Community Aging project, researchers conducted structural scans with MRI and measured the levels of inflammatory biomarkers, both CRP and IL6. Study participants completed a 61-point food frequency questionnaire that asked for nutrient intake over the last year. From this information, researchers used a statistical model to create the nutrition-related inflammation pattern (INP). “INP is basically a linear combination of 24 nutrients, each with a different weight on INP.” Participants in the study were also subjected to neuropsychological tests that evaluated memory, language, execution speed, and visuospatial function. From these test scores, the researchers calculated a mean composite cognitive score for each participant. Those with less years of education have had a relatively high INP. Researchers have determined that having a smaller gray matter cerebral volume could help explain why those who use more inflammatory substances have worse visuospacial cognitions. These new findings suggest that interventions that reduce inflammatory markers may be helpful. Once this is known, it may be possible to intervene, not only through a healthier diet, but perhaps also with a micronutrient...

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Gut microbiota-bone axis

Gut microbiota-bone axis

Have already for some years now that we talk and we study the immense world of the microbiota, an important regulator of homeostasis of the body, including intestinal and extra-intestinal effects, even you compare it to an immense body of him with all his independent features; it is also considered a “second brain”, but the most interesting discovery in recent months, carried out by the University of Toronto, Canada, is its close relationship with the skeletal system. For several years he was associated with the beneficial relationship between the osteoporotic disease and microbiota, but this study focuses on the effect of the influence of the intestinal microbial communities and molecules that synthesize and regulate bone health. While research in this area is limited, the results of preclinical studies claim that the intestinal microbiota has a positive impact on the parameters of bone mineral density and strength. Moreover, the administration of probiotics in preclinical models have demonstrated greater bone mineralization and increased bone strength in treated patients. The kind of preferential bacteria that has shown these beneficial effects on bone is Lactobacillus and then lactobacilli are among the best candidates for future clinical intervention studies. However, their effectiveness depends on the stage of growth, in fact, usually it is the first few years of life that are an important opportunity to determine bone health, especially through the modulation of the microbiota. Also, the difference of sex specific influences the efficacy of probiotics. Although auspicious, many questions about the microbiota-axis bones require consideration of potential mechanisms; specific effectiveness in relation to sex; the effective dose of probiotics; and the timing and the duration of treatment. But we can definitely say that this study opens up another interesting port on the universe of the intestinal...

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BALANCE OF PH IN URINE

BALANCE OF PH IN URINE

PH is the unit of measurement of the degree of alkalinity or acidity of a particular liquid. In our body, the normal pH has a value of 7. Above this value it has an excess of acidity, below, instead, an excess of alkalinity. The human biochemical processes function properly only if the pH is at a stable value of 7. The pH of urine reflects the renal ability to maintain a normal concentration of hydrogen ions in plasma and extracellular fluid. This result is mainly obtained through the reabsorption of sodium and secretion of hydrogen and ammonium ions by the renal tubules. The pH of urine can vary within a rather broad normal range. Unlike blood for which oscillations of ± 0.4 points are in itself an indicator of extremely serious diseases, the pH of urine is normally between 4.6 and 8, in relation to the diet and to the health of the body. In our bodies, there are buffer systems that regulate our pH. It is however noted that improper feeding, deficient trace elements and vitamins often leads to a metabolic acidosis; in particular in a body that presents pathologies, it is a true acid generator. This is because, due to the deficiency of these nutrients, which are important catalysts of enzymatic reactions, some chains of the chemical metabolism are blocked, resulting in the accumulation of acids. Urinary pH allows us to identify the excess of acidification in the organism due to deficiency of trace elements and vitamins. Therefore, it is necessary to supplement your diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables and supplement with alkalizing...

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INTESTINAL HYGIENE AND ANTI-AGING

INTESTINAL HYGIENE AND ANTI-AGING

The majority of chronic degenerative diseases depends on a bad state of the intestine. In particular, the abuse of refined sugar, that favors the proliferation of intestinal bacteria, in particular, coliforms, very active in the production of enzymes, which may facilitate the transformation of pre-carcinogens elements present in food in active carcinogens. The excessive consumption of meat can cause intestinal putrefaction reactions resulting in the formation of amines, extremely toxic substances. The abuse of saturated animal fats change the intestinal flora, increasing the percentage of bacteria that tend to turn the bile salts in carcinogens. They can also make the intestinal wall more porous and permeable to the bacteria that is present. In this environment intestinal flora acidophilus decreases and thus the natural barrier against microbial decomposition of foods fails; the cell membrane becomes more permeable, it lets a greater number of bacteria and toxic substances into the bloodstream through. Thus It is much easier that the organism weakens and leads to pathologies as well as chronic diseases. Also it is important to also have a regular daily bowel movement, to deal with a slow transit and consequent decrease in lactobacilli (acidic intestinal flora) and an increase in pathogenic bacteria. Therefore it is important to keep the intestinal environment as intact as possible. Depending on personal needs, the Dr. Kousmine suggests the use of two techniques to keep the intestine “clean” – the technique of enemas and the technique of colonic irrigation. The 1st technique involves the rectal introduction of approximately 2 liters of chamomile tea at a temperature of 35-37°, accompanied by abdominal massage. After evacuating the liquid, 4 tablespoons of cold-pressed sunflower oil, brought to the temperature of 35-37° must be introduced, preferably in the evening which will then be eliminated the morning after. The technique of irrigation of the colon consists of an enema with water at room temperature throughout the colon through a two-circuit cannula, one for the access of the water and one for outlet. This operation takes about 1 hour, cleans and detoxifies the intestine mucosa, removing all the waste that is present (the frequency of the use of this technique varies according to...

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