Gut microbiota can influence the cognitive development of the child

Gut microbiota can influence the cognitive development of the child

A new research, developed at the Department of Psychiatry of the University of North Carolina, and published in Biological Psychiatry, shows that the intestinal microbiota can influence the cognitive development of the child, The researchers analyzed faecal samples from children from one year until development to determine the bacterial composition of their intestine. At the age of two, some children scored significantly better on cognitive tests than others. The differences were found in relation to the bacterial clusters that had been identified in their intestinal microbiotes. According to the researchers, if we could better understand what the real beneficial strains are in the complex microbiota community for brain development, the creation of specific therapies for cognitive development would be at the forefront. Actually this is a very promising field of research and the steps that are taking place are very fast. The first year of life is the fundamental period for microbial colonization of the intestine and the most rapid and dynamic phase of postnatal brain development. The possible competition of these processes has not been tested empirically in humans, although studies on rodent models provide convincing evidence that microorganisms inhabiting the gut affect neurodevelopment, in particular both exploratory and communicative behaviors and cognitive performance. . A number of studies replicated in animal research have shown that if you manipulate the microbiota, you can affect the behavior especially in the first two years of life since in this period is presented by both the microbiota and the neuronal component, a growth very fast and dynamic. The researchers hypothesized that samples of the intestinal microbiota can be grouped in groups of “community similarity or cluster” and that children with different groups would differ in cognitive abilities. It has been seen that overall cognitive performance would be higher in clusters with an abundance of specifically beneficial microorganisms (eg Lactobacillus or Bacteroides), while that of low alpha diversity (which indicates a less mature microbiota) would be correlated with a cognitive performance lower. The children were subsequently grouped into three groups: Cluster 1 (C1) was characterized by a relatively high abundance of Faecalibacterium, cluster 2 (C2) by a relatively high abundance of Bacteroides and cluster 3 (C3) by an abundance relatively high of an unnamed genus in the Ruminococcaceae family. Breastfeeding at the time of sample collection (1 year), the method of delivery and the paternal ethnic group were significantly different among the clusters. Children in C2 were more likely to be breastfed at the age of 1 and were less likely to be born by cesarean delivery. The paternal ethnicity in C2 was 90% white; in C3, the paternal ethnic group was 71% white; in C1, the paternal ethnic group was 57%...

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Almonds and dark chocolate heart friend

Almonds and dark chocolate heart friend

In a study published in the Journal of the American Heart Association it was shown that the complete introduction into a normal healthy diet of almonds, dark chocolate and cocoa can help reduce the risk factors for coronary heart disease. The researchers found that taking almost a third of a cup of almonds a day – alone or in combination with almost a quarter cup of dark chocolate and just over 2 tablespoons of cocoa a day – improves the rate of lipids / lipoproteins, compared to the average American diet without almonds and chocolate. This diet led to a significant reduction in LDL cholesterol. It is important that the population is allowed to have about 270 discretional calories a day along with foods such as almonds, dark chocolate and cocoa in such a way as to confer health benefits unlike other discretionary foods such as foods rich in saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols and flavonoids. The study involved 31 adults who took combined or isolated dark chocolate, cocoa and almonds with final evaluation of lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations: patients were overweight or obese and with total cholesterol and high LDL (TC , 210.0 mg / dL) (138.3 mg / dL) but with good general health conditions. In this study, the participants consumed each of the four weight maintenance diets: No “treatment” food (average American diet). Almonds 42.5 g / day (almond based diet). 18 g / day of cocoa powder and 43 g / day of dark chocolate (chocolate diet). Almonds, cocoa powder and dark chocolate (chocolate / almond diet). The diets were similar, except for the presence or absence of these treatment foods, which explained the main differences in the nutritional profile. Each diet period lasted for 4 weeks, followed by a 2-week compliance break. Compared to the average American diet, after the almond diet the values ​​of CT, HDL, and LDL were reduced by 4%, 5% and 7%, respectively. The double chocolate and almond diet has reduced apolipoprotein B by 5% compared to the average American diet. The values ​​of LDL were more influenced by the introduction of the combination of almonds and dark chocolate in the diet. The researchers point out that these results are specific to the population of overweight, overweight and obese overweight adult patients with high levels of CT and LDL. According to the researchers, this very well controlled study showed that the substitution of saturated fats from animal fats (such as butter and cheese) with unsaturated fats from nuts (such as almonds) had a positive effect on the plasma concentrations of...

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Inflammatory foods and dementia

Inflammatory foods and dementia

American researchers at Columbia University believe they have discovered a key part in understanding the link between diet and dementia. A specific dietary model was attached to the markers of blood inflammation. Moreover, in elderly adults who followed such a dietary pattern, the volume of cerebral gray matter was lower and had worst visuospasic cognitive functions. People who consume less omega 3, less calcium, vitamin E, vitamin D and vitamin B5 and B2 have more inflammatory biomarkers. The study suggests that dietary factors such as fish, nuts, polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3, folate and Mediterranean diets are associated with lower risks for Alzheimer’s (AD) disease and better brain health in older people. Other evidence shows that many foods and nutrients modulate inflammatory processes. This study showed an association between increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL6) and worse brain cognitions and volumes. In the study of 330 elderly adults in the Washington Heights-Inwood Community Aging project, researchers conducted structural scans with MRI and measured the levels of inflammatory biomarkers, both CRP and IL6. Study participants completed a 61-point food frequency questionnaire that asked for nutrient intake over the last year. From this information, researchers used a statistical model to create the nutrition-related inflammation pattern (INP). “INP is basically a linear combination of 24 nutrients, each with a different weight on INP.” Participants in the study were also subjected to neuropsychological tests that evaluated memory, language, execution speed, and visuospatial function. From these test scores, the researchers calculated a mean composite cognitive score for each participant. Those with less years of education have had a relatively high INP. Researchers have determined that having a smaller gray matter cerebral volume could help explain why those who use more inflammatory substances have worse visuospacial cognitions. These new findings suggest that interventions that reduce inflammatory markers may be helpful. Once this is known, it may be possible to intervene, not only through a healthier diet, but perhaps also with a micronutrient...

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Gut microbiota-bone axis

Gut microbiota-bone axis

Have already for some years now that we talk and we study the immense world of the microbiota, an important regulator of homeostasis of the body, including intestinal and extra-intestinal effects, even you compare it to an immense body of him with all his independent features; it is also considered a “second brain”, but the most interesting discovery in recent months, carried out by the University of Toronto, Canada, is its close relationship with the skeletal system. For several years he was associated with the beneficial relationship between the osteoporotic disease and microbiota, but this study focuses on the effect of the influence of the intestinal microbial communities and molecules that synthesize and regulate bone health. While research in this area is limited, the results of preclinical studies claim that the intestinal microbiota has a positive impact on the parameters of bone mineral density and strength. Moreover, the administration of probiotics in preclinical models have demonstrated greater bone mineralization and increased bone strength in treated patients. The kind of preferential bacteria that has shown these beneficial effects on bone is Lactobacillus and then lactobacilli are among the best candidates for future clinical intervention studies. However, their effectiveness depends on the stage of growth, in fact, usually it is the first few years of life that are an important opportunity to determine bone health, especially through the modulation of the microbiota. Also, the difference of sex specific influences the efficacy of probiotics. Although auspicious, many questions about the microbiota-axis bones require consideration of potential mechanisms; specific effectiveness in relation to sex; the effective dose of probiotics; and the timing and the duration of treatment. But we can definitely say that this study opens up another interesting port on the universe of the intestinal...

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The Mediterranean Diet and ADHD in Children and Adolescents

The Mediterranean Diet and ADHD in Children and Adolescents

An interesting study conducted by the University of Barcelona and published in Pediatrics. January 2017 showed a higher risk for the disorder attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children and adolescents who are less adherent to the Mediterranean diet than most members. They are always carried out studies on the relationship between low quality of food and the higher risk of ADHD, but had never been performed studies regarding the Mediterranean diet and ADHD. The association between a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the likelihood of a diagnosis of ADHD remained significant even after adjustment for confounding variables such as body mass index, physical activity level, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and social conditions. The study included 60 children and adolescents who had recently been diagnosed with ADHD and 60 participants by sex and the same control (age for all participants, from 6 to 16 years). The two groups were compared with respect to dietary intake and adherence to a Mediterranean diet. In all children control tests and adolescents with ADHD they have shown statistically significant data to lower scores of adherence to a Mediterranean diet compared to controls. For example, compared to the control group, those who had been recently diagnosed with ADHD had significantly lower probability of consumption for a second portion of fruit every day. They also consumed less fresh vegetables or cooked one or more times every day or pasta or rice almost every day. In addition, the percentage of subjects with ADHD eat more often in a fast-food. In addition, a significantly greater percentage of patients with ADHD jumped the breakfast compared with control participants. Both groups consumed fish, dairy products, baked goods or with relatively equal frequency. Similarly, patients with ADHD have consumed about twice the sugar and candy, in 4.7 g / day, compared to non-ADHD participants, at 2.4 g / day. Patients with ADHD also consumed more soft drinks (41.1 vs 22 g / day) and cola-based drinks (17.2 g / day vs 9.2 g / day). We must also consider the inverse relationship of the study, ie the possibility that individuals with ADHD can make food choices (foods high in fat or sugar) to balance their traits of impulsivity or emotional stress. This observation seems to be confirmed, as the participants with ADHD who consumed sugary foods and drinks significantly more than the control persons. This involves a diet with poor quality that may lead to deficiencies of essential nutrients, such as iron, zinc, magnesium, and omega-3 fatty acids, which contribute to the cognitive growth and healthy physical. These nutrients appear to play an essential role in the etiology of ADHD and it is believed that this could...

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