Gut microbiota can influence the cognitive development of the child

Gut microbiota can influence the cognitive development of the child

A new research, developed at the Department of Psychiatry of the University of North Carolina, and published in Biological Psychiatry, shows that the intestinal microbiota can influence the cognitive development of the child, The researchers analyzed faecal samples from children from one year until development to determine the bacterial composition of their intestine. At the age of two, some children scored significantly better on cognitive tests than others. The differences were found in relation to the bacterial clusters that had been identified in their intestinal microbiotes. According to the researchers, if we could better understand what the real beneficial strains are in the complex microbiota community for brain development, the creation of specific therapies for cognitive development would be at the forefront. Actually this is a very promising field of research and the steps that are taking place are very fast. The first year of life is the fundamental period for microbial colonization of the intestine and the most rapid and dynamic phase of postnatal brain development. The possible competition of these processes has not been tested empirically in humans, although studies on rodent models provide convincing evidence that microorganisms inhabiting the gut affect neurodevelopment, in particular both exploratory and communicative behaviors and cognitive performance. . A number of studies replicated in animal research have shown that if you manipulate the microbiota, you can affect the behavior especially in the first two years of life since in this period is presented by both the microbiota and the neuronal component, a growth very fast and dynamic. The researchers hypothesized that samples of the intestinal microbiota can be grouped in groups of “community similarity or cluster” and that children with different groups would differ in cognitive abilities. It has been seen that overall cognitive performance would be higher in clusters with an abundance of specifically beneficial microorganisms (eg Lactobacillus or Bacteroides), while that of low alpha diversity (which indicates a less mature microbiota) would be correlated with a cognitive performance lower. The children were subsequently grouped into three groups: Cluster 1 (C1) was characterized by a relatively high abundance of Faecalibacterium, cluster 2 (C2) by a relatively high abundance of Bacteroides and cluster 3 (C3) by an abundance relatively high of an unnamed genus in the Ruminococcaceae family. Breastfeeding at the time of sample collection (1 year), the method of delivery and the paternal ethnic group were significantly different among the clusters. Children in C2 were more likely to be breastfed at the age of 1 and were less likely to be born by cesarean delivery. The paternal ethnicity in C2 was 90% white; in C3, the paternal ethnic group was 71% white; in C1, the paternal ethnic group was 57%...

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CRP is a marker of bipolar disorders?

CRP is a marker of bipolar disorders?

A very interesting study, of the Deakin University School of Medicine, in Geelong, Victoria, Australia, published online Nov. 9 in The Lancet Psychiatry, shows that the changes in the buff and conditions of mania in patients with bipolar disorder, is associated with high levels C-reactive protein (CRP), a known inflammatory biomarker Currently there are no reliable biomarkers for bipolar disorder, although evidence indicates the CRP as a possible candidate. According to the ‘ “immune hypothesis”, an increase of immune activation may be associated with a number of psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder. For the meta-analysis and systematic review, the authors identified 27 studies that included 2,161 patients with bipolar disorder and 81.932 healthy control persons. The evaluation of the data relating to the concentrations of CRP showed that for people with bipolar disorder, CRP levels were higher during periods of depression and, more significantly, during the craze. The increase in CRP concentrations, were not related to the severity of symptoms in mania or depression; however, concentrations were moderately decreased after the resolution of a manic episode and were down slightly after a depressive episode. Despite psychiatric medicines have been associated with increased concentrations of CRP, the analysis showed that in patients taking medications for mania and depression, CRP concentrations were lower than those patients who did not receive the drug. These results are consistent with previous evidence indicating benefits in the treatment of certain psychiatric disorders with anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin and statins. High levels of CRP are a well established marker of cardiovascular risk, and the use of drugs such as statins decrease CRP levels and as a result the incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. This demonstrates accordingly as bipolar disorder is also associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, which would be another reason for the routine evaluation of PCR in this...

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Obesity and intestinal microbiota

Obesity and intestinal microbiota

In the pathogenesis of obesity, various factors interact in a very detailed and complex manner: behavioral, psychological, environmental, metabolic, neuro-immune-endocrine. Several studies have shown a relationship between intestine microbiota and obesity. Even though not univocally, studies that have been carried out in mice and humans have shown a change in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in obese subjects with an increase in Firmicutes and a Bacteroidetes reduction. Experimental and clinical evidence are illuminating in a surprising manner regarding the complex entity of intestinal microbiota and its multiple functions. It was observed that the microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract are not only guests nearly inert but are active protagonists of lively interactions between the gastrointestinal tract and the neuro-immune-endocrine system. The total genome of single intestinal flora is exponentially richer than the human genome genes. In fact we know that the intestinal flora comprises 1014 bacteria to which should be added fungi and viruses. Only 1% of our genes is transmitted from parents, the remaining 99% is acquired by the microbiome present in the surrounding environment in particular at the time of birth, during the passage through the birth canal and then with breastfeeding....

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Transplantation of feces or fecal bacteriotherapy

Transplantation of feces or fecal bacteriotherapy

The “yellow soup” was a therapy described in Chinese medical texts in the 4th century after Christ, to cure certain serious intestinal infections. The technique used for the fecal bacteriotherapy has been being developed since 2003 by Dr. Thomas J. Borody’s team in Australia, as an alternative treatment in pseudomembranous colitis. In the same year a research team from SMDC Medical Center in Minnesota published a work that for the first time described the method of 18 cases of patients with Clostridium difficile infection. Transplantation of fecal microbiota, more prosaically called fecal transplant can correct severe cases of diarrhea caused by a very bad germ, Clostridium difficile, against which many antibiotics no longer work. The transplant takes place through an infusion of feces from a healthy donor, diluted in a saline solution through a feeding tube that starts from the nose to the duodenum or directly in the intestines through a colonoscope. The material used comes from healthy individuals who have been tested to rule out that they are carriers of disease. Transplantation works because the feces contain hundreds or even thousands of bacteria, some of these bacteria have healing powers as they antagonize pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and restore the normal intestinal flora. The main advantage of the fecal bacteriotherapy is to reduce the risk of inducing antibiotic resistance in bacteria with high...

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The importance of intestinal microbiota in the maintenance of the intestinal immune homeostasis.

The importance of intestinal microbiota in the maintenance of the intestinal immune homeostasis.

The importance of plant fiber in the diet is so in the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases. Among the many molecules of non-digestible carbohydrates we have pectins, the oligofructose, inulin, cellulose, resistant starch and beta-glucans. The term “non-digestible carbohydrates” is given to them because their bonds are not split by amylase and disaccharidases. For that is important in diet the assumption of this food. From the fermentation implemented through the bacterial enzymes are formed short chain fatty acids: propionic acid (C3), butyric acid (C4), and gases (carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen). Resistant starch and some oligosaccharides meet this fate. Some molecules (eg, pectin and guar gum) are fermented more efficiently compared to cellulose or wheat bran. The short chain fatty acids (SCFA) as iso-butyric acid and iso-valeric, are also formed during the fermentation of certain peptides resistant to the action of peptidases. The intestinal microbiota is essential for the maintenance of the intestinal immune homeostasis. Butyrate, the most abundant bioactive SCFA in the intestines, is a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), a class of drugs that has potent immunomodulatory properties. It was discovered that butyrate may modulate the function of dendritic cells to regulate the homeostasis of the intestinal mucosa and that inhibits IL-12, which significantly induce the expression of IL-23. It is a important interleukin of the inflammatory response against infection and promotes upregulation of the matrix metalloprotease MMP9, increases angiogenesis and reduces CD8+ T-cell infiltration. One of the foods with the highest content of butyric acid is Ghee, a clarified butter product of the ordinary unsalted butter, after heating it on low heat to remove the water, protein and lactose. It is rich in saturated fatty acids, especially short chain; it is used in terms of energy and in the formation of phospholipids and omega 3 and 6 metabolism . The use of ghee is millennial and fundamental in Ayurvedic Medicine the therapeutic goal is to modify the main and structuring Ojas, the coherent part of the human body and balancing and pacify Pitta dosha.    ...

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