CRP is a marker of bipolar disorders?

CRP is a marker of bipolar disorders?

A very interesting study, of the Deakin University School of Medicine, in Geelong, Victoria, Australia, published online Nov. 9 in The Lancet Psychiatry, shows that the changes in the buff and conditions of mania in patients with bipolar disorder, is associated with high levels C-reactive protein (CRP), a known inflammatory biomarker Currently there are no reliable biomarkers for bipolar disorder, although evidence indicates the CRP as a possible candidate. According to the ‘ “immune hypothesis”, an increase of immune activation may be associated with a number of psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder. For the meta-analysis and systematic review, the authors identified 27 studies that included 2,161 patients with bipolar disorder and 81.932 healthy control persons. The evaluation of the data relating to the concentrations of CRP showed that for people with bipolar disorder, CRP levels were higher during periods of depression and, more significantly, during the craze. The increase in CRP concentrations, were not related to the severity of symptoms in mania or depression; however, concentrations were moderately decreased after the resolution of a manic episode and were down slightly after a depressive episode. Despite psychiatric medicines have been associated with increased concentrations of CRP, the analysis showed that in patients taking medications for mania and depression, CRP concentrations were lower than those patients who did not receive the drug. These results are consistent with previous evidence indicating benefits in the treatment of certain psychiatric disorders with anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin and statins. High levels of CRP are a well established marker of cardiovascular risk, and the use of drugs such as statins decrease CRP levels and as a result the incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. This demonstrates accordingly as bipolar disorder is also associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, which would be another reason for the routine evaluation of PCR in this...

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Obesity and intestinal microbiota

Obesity and intestinal microbiota

In the pathogenesis of obesity, various factors interact in a very detailed and complex manner: behavioral, psychological, environmental, metabolic, neuro-immune-endocrine. Several studies have shown a relationship between intestine microbiota and obesity. Even though not univocally, studies that have been carried out in mice and humans have shown a change in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in obese subjects with an increase in Firmicutes and a Bacteroidetes reduction. Experimental and clinical evidence are illuminating in a surprising manner regarding the complex entity of intestinal microbiota and its multiple functions. It was observed that the microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract are not only guests nearly inert but are active protagonists of lively interactions between the gastrointestinal tract and the neuro-immune-endocrine system. The total genome of single intestinal flora is exponentially richer than the human genome genes. In fact we know that the intestinal flora comprises 1014 bacteria to which should be added fungi and viruses. Only 1% of our genes is transmitted from parents, the remaining 99% is acquired by the microbiome present in the surrounding environment in particular at the time of birth, during the passage through the birth canal and then with breastfeeding....

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Transplantation of feces or fecal bacteriotherapy

Transplantation of feces or fecal bacteriotherapy

The “yellow soup” was a therapy described in Chinese medical texts in the 4th century after Christ, to cure certain serious intestinal infections. The technique used for the fecal bacteriotherapy has been being developed since 2003 by Dr. Thomas J. Borody’s team in Australia, as an alternative treatment in pseudomembranous colitis. In the same year a research team from SMDC Medical Center in Minnesota published a work that for the first time described the method of 18 cases of patients with Clostridium difficile infection. Transplantation of fecal microbiota, more prosaically called fecal transplant can correct severe cases of diarrhea caused by a very bad germ, Clostridium difficile, against which many antibiotics no longer work. The transplant takes place through an infusion of feces from a healthy donor, diluted in a saline solution through a feeding tube that starts from the nose to the duodenum or directly in the intestines through a colonoscope. The material used comes from healthy individuals who have been tested to rule out that they are carriers of disease. Transplantation works because the feces contain hundreds or even thousands of bacteria, some of these bacteria have healing powers as they antagonize pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and restore the normal intestinal flora. The main advantage of the fecal bacteriotherapy is to reduce the risk of inducing antibiotic resistance in bacteria with high...

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The importance of intestinal microbiota in the maintenance of the intestinal immune homeostasis.

The importance of intestinal microbiota in the maintenance of the intestinal immune homeostasis.

The importance of plant fiber in the diet is so in the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases. Among the many molecules of non-digestible carbohydrates we have pectins, the oligofructose, inulin, cellulose, resistant starch and beta-glucans. The term “non-digestible carbohydrates” is given to them because their bonds are not split by amylase and disaccharidases. For that is important in diet the assumption of this food. From the fermentation implemented through the bacterial enzymes are formed short chain fatty acids: propionic acid (C3), butyric acid (C4), and gases (carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen). Resistant starch and some oligosaccharides meet this fate. Some molecules (eg, pectin and guar gum) are fermented more efficiently compared to cellulose or wheat bran. The short chain fatty acids (SCFA) as iso-butyric acid and iso-valeric, are also formed during the fermentation of certain peptides resistant to the action of peptidases. The intestinal microbiota is essential for the maintenance of the intestinal immune homeostasis. Butyrate, the most abundant bioactive SCFA in the intestines, is a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), a class of drugs that has potent immunomodulatory properties. It was discovered that butyrate may modulate the function of dendritic cells to regulate the homeostasis of the intestinal mucosa and that inhibits IL-12, which significantly induce the expression of IL-23. It is a important interleukin of the inflammatory response against infection and promotes upregulation of the matrix metalloprotease MMP9, increases angiogenesis and reduces CD8+ T-cell infiltration. One of the foods with the highest content of butyric acid is Ghee, a clarified butter product of the ordinary unsalted butter, after heating it on low heat to remove the water, protein and lactose. It is rich in saturated fatty acids, especially short chain; it is used in terms of energy and in the formation of phospholipids and omega 3 and 6 metabolism . The use of ghee is millennial and fundamental in Ayurvedic Medicine the therapeutic goal is to modify the main and structuring Ojas, the coherent part of the human body and balancing and pacify Pitta dosha.    ...

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Vitamin B 12 reduces cerebral aging.

Vitamin B 12 reduces cerebral aging.

It was found, through a new research conducted by the Research Centre for Alzheimer’s and aging at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm in Sweden and published on JAMA Psychiatry in April, that individuals who have an increase in circulating homocysteine ​​levels have the faster levels of brain changes associated with aging than other people, while the higher levels of vitamin B12 are associated with slower rates cerebral aging. I researchers found that the total volume of the brain mass loss was more lower in subjects with the highest levels of vitamin B12, compared to those who had an increase in homocysteine ​​levels. According to this research the levels of vitamin B12 and total homocysteine ​​may be listed as brain aging markers in elderly individuals without dementia. The researchers examined data on 501 participants over the age of 60 years by the National Institute on Ageing Swedish. All participants were free of dementia at baseline. Of these patients, 299 were subjected to repeated structural brain rmn between 2001 and 2009. At baseline and at each follow-up, participants underwent a clinical examination, an interview and an assessment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, medical history, drug use, and cognitive function were collected. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline, including the circulating levels of vitamin B12, folate and sulfur amino acids. These data were correlated with changes in brain tissue volume and total white matter hyper intensities (WMH) over 6 years. The ideal is to have a brain that is about three times more in over six years, but the best situation is to have the dosage of Vitamin B12 three times as much in six years, explain the experts. However it is believed that the finding of an association between levels of vitamin B12 and the loss of brain volume suggests that a randomized controlled trial of vitamin B12 supplementation is warranted to determine if it could prevent brain aging. The study also notes that not everyone will benefit from supplementation, but those who have low levels of these vitamins and those who have clinical signs of vitamin B12 deficiency. It is also noted in the study that supplementation of vitamin B12 has a positive effect patients over age 70 who had mild cognitive impairment in the...

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